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Racial differences in employment outcomes after traumatic brain injury

by Arango, J. C., Ketchum, J., Williams, K., Kreutzer, J., Marquez, C., Oneil-Pirozzi, T., & Wehman., P

Arango-Lasprilla, J., Ketchum, J., Williams, K., Kreutzer, J., Marquez de la Plata, C., O’Neil-Pirozzi, T. & Wehman, P. (2008). Racial differences in employment outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 89(5), 988-995.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2008.02.012

Abstract
Racial differences in employment outcomes after traumatic brain injury.

Objective
To examine racial differences in employment status and occupational status 1 year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Design
Retrospective study.

Setting
Longitudinal dataset of the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems national database.

Participants
Subjects with primarily moderate to severe TBI (3468 whites vs 1791 minorities) hospitalized between 1989 and 2005.

Outcomes
Employment status (competitively employed or unemployed) and occupational status (professional/managerial, skilled, or manual labor) at 1 year postinjury.

Results
Race and/or ethnicity has a significant effect on employment status at 1 year postinjury (View the MathML source=58.23, P<.001), after adjusting for preinjury employment status, sex, Disability Rating Scale at discharge, marital status, cause of injury, age, and education. The adjusted odds of being unemployed versus competitively employed are 2.17 times (95% confidence interval, 1.78–2.65) greater for minorities than for whites. Race and ethnicity does not have a significant effect on occupational status at 1 year postinjury.

Conclusions
With this empirical evidence supporting racial differences in employment outcomes between minorities and whites at 1 year postinjury, priority should be given to tailoring interventions to maximize minority survivors' work-related productivity.