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Disability Management References II

by Phil Rumrill

Allen, J. (1994). Successful Job Search Strategies for the Disabled: Understanding the ADA. New York: Wiley. This book serves as a comprehensive guide for people with disabilities in the job search process. The author focuses on key terms and provisions of Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act -- including disability, qualified, covered employers, reasonable accommodations, essential job functions, undue hardship, disclosure, and civil rights remedies. Special attention is placed on the job search and networking processes, as well as marketing one=s residual abilities rather than functional limitations.

Alvarex, M. (1997). The impact of cultural differences on disability management programs. Employment Relations To day 23(4), 37-49. This article discusses the impact that cultural differences can have on business practice and programs related to disability management. The author describes how disability compensation can be affected if employees either do not understand program parameters or perceive that employers are not attentive to their needs. Examples are given of Hispanic workers, but the text is designed to apply broadly to various cultures.

Barge, B.N., & Carlson, J.G. (1993). Controlling Health Care and Disability Costs: Strategy-Based Solutions. New York: John Wiley & Sons. This book outlines a comprehensive framework for implementing disability management programs in industry. The authors= thesis is that preventing work-related injuries and promptly responding to injured workers= needs result in tremendous cost savings for employers seeking to circumvent the workers compensation system to every extent possible. Circumvention of the workers= compensation system is achieved by reducing the number and severity of injuries and by returning injured employees to their jobs as quickly as possible. Disability is framed within an overall health care costs framework, and it is presented as one of the most expensive personnel expenditures facing American employers.

Barrett, R. (1996). Related federal acts: Americans with Disabilities Act and Age Discrimination in Employment Act. In S. Barrett (Ed.), Fair Employment Strategies in Human Resource Management. (pp. 259-263). Westport, CT: Quorum Books/Greenwood Publishing Group. This chapter reviews personnel selection and accommodation procedures under the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. The author compares and contrasts these statutes with Title 7 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, suggesting strategies for employers to use in screening and hiring older workers and people with disabilities.

Beger, S. (1998).Disability trends and management. Broker World 18(3), 16-20. Costs associated with disability in the workplace are rising at 8 percent per year, and they are expected to reach $360 billion by the year 2000. Between 8 and 12 percent of employer= payroll can be attributed to employee disability. This article examines the trends contributing to the increased prevalence and cost of disability in American society, including demographics, medical advances, corporate restructuring, and regulatory mandates. The author notes that insurers have responded to the increased incidence and complexity of disability claims by establishing disability management programs. Summaries of the key components of effective disability management programs are provided.

Bernard, T. (1996). Occupational heat stress. In A. Bhattacharya, & J. McGlothlin, (Eds.) Occupational Ergonomics: Theory and Application. (pp. 195-218) New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. This chapter discusses the effects of heat stress on work performance. Heat stress is defined as the combined effects of climatic conditions, metabolism, and clothing, and it is an important consideration in designing ergonomically sound work environments. Chapter topics include the significance of heat stress to occupational ergonomics, strategies for managing heat stress in the workplace, and future concerns in heat stress assessment and control.

Blackwell, T.L., Powers, A.S., & Weed, R.O. (1994). Life Care Planning for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Resource Manual for Case Managers. Athens, GA: Elliott & Fitzpatrick. This book overviews life care planning strategies for people with traumatic brain injuries. The authors emphasize the importance of early and responsive acute and post-acute medical services, along with a broad focus in future service planning. Areas of services included in effective life care plans include psychosocial, vocational, medical, independent living, and health maintenance.

Blackwell, T.L., Powers, A.S., & Weed, R.O. (1994). Life Care Planning for Spinal Cord Injury: A Resource Manual for Case Managers. Athens, GA: Elliott & Fitzpatrick. This book addresses life care planning strategies for people with spinal cord injuries. Special emphasis is placed on enhancing mobility and independence through durable medical equipment and assistive technology, along with personal adjustment service needs which often persist long after medical restoration has been completed.

Blanck, P., Andersen, J. Wallach, E., & Tenney, J. (1995). Implementing reasonable accommodations using ADR under the ADA: The case of a white-collar employee with bipolar mental illness. Mental & Physical Disability Law Reporter 18(4), 458-464. This article reviews an Americans with Disabilities Act issue which was resolved using Alternate Dispute Resolution methods. The plaintiff was a professional-level employee who had a documented mental illness, and the primary issue revolved around the employer=s willingness to provide on-the-job accommodations. Alternate Dispute Resolution as a means of circumventing costly and counter-productive litigation is presented as a potentially important service for both employees and employers.

Boyle, M. (1997). Social barriers to successful reentry into mainstream organizational culture: Perceptions of people with disabilities. Human Resource Quarterly 8(3), 259-268. This article presents findings from a research study concerning how selected people with disabilities became successful participants in organizational settings. The settings involved people with disabilities who represented racial or ethnic minority groups. The authors applied an in-depth case study method to explore the social dimension of organizational re-entry. Qualitative interviews were conducted with each participant, and the results indicated that barriers reported by participants were typically the result of the social environment which had stereotyped them as second-class citizens.

Bradford, M. (1998). Dispelling preconceived notions about IDM programs. Business Insurance 32(18), 40. This article provides a rationale and explanation for Integrated Disability Management (IDM) programs in industry. The author suggests that employers who take on IDM programs must convince management and employees that some pre-conceived notions about IDM are inaccurate. IDM programs are gaining popularity as businesses begin to incorporate workers compensation, disability, and other benefit programs into single packages that cover occupational and non-occupational injuries.

Bradford, M. (1999). Integrated disability insurance program brings results for company. Business Insurance 33(16), 14. This article describes a case study of one company= experiences in implementing a comprehensive disability management program. The program integrates the management of workers compensation, short and long-term disability, and permanent and total disability claims. The program substantially lowered the employer=s disability-related costs, improved productivity, and raised employee satisfaction.

Budkiewicz, D. (1999). Key to disability profits: Risk management. National Underwriter 103(7), 19-22. This article discusses the employer=s influence on the disability management process and how it has been increasingly recognized as being key to controlling costs. The author notes that how the employer views the importance of structuring appropriate employee benefit programs, preventing employee disability, and committing to rehabilitation and other accommodation programs for employees, directly influences disability costs.

Budnick, P., Bloswick, D., & Brown, D. (1996). Ergonomics and concurrent design. In A. Bhattacharya, & J. McGlothlin, (Eds.), Occupational Ergonomics: Theory and Application. (pp. 719-732) New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. This chapter describes the application of ergonomics principles to concurrent design in product development. Concurrent design refers to the simultaneous development of (a) marketable products and (b) manufacturing strategies which maximize speed of production and cost effectiveness. The authors make the point that ergonomics must be incorporated into concurrent design methods if product developers are to fully maximize cost-effectiveness and speed of production.

Caldwell, B. (1997). Research shows mental and nervous disorders are a key in disability management. Employee Benefit Plan Review 51(10), 10-11. In this interview with Patricia M. Owens, president of an Integrated Disability Management (IDM) program at UNUM Life Insurance Company of America, she discusses the implications of a study of factors that influence the incidence, durations and costs of psychiatric disabilities. Owens notes that depression accounts for $44 billion of the $148 billion annual costs for mental health care in the United States.

Campbell, S. (1996). Triple compliance: FMLA, ADA, and workers= comp. Occupational Health & Safety 65(4), 46-47. This article describes a seminar on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and workers= compensation. The key to compliance on these laws is consistency, which requires coordination of all cases with a disability management program. Effective disability management is difficult if a company splits responsibility for cases involving disability leave among safety, risk management, benefits, and other human resources professionals. A basic decision tree for all three areas involving determining first if you are a covered employer, and second, if the employee is covered.

Carruthers, M.J. (1993). Targeting disability management. Risks & Benefits Journal 3(3), 14-17. This article casts employer-based disability management as an integral element of an overall risk management and human resource development system. The delayed economic impact of work-related injuries sometimes leads employers to view safety and early intervention strategies for injured workers as costing too much in Aup front@ costs. Looking ahead to disability costs being passed back to the employer during the following year by the workers compensation carrier, however, provides compelling evidence that Aan ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.@

Clark, D. (1996). Workstation evaluation and design. In A. Bhattacharya, & J. McGlothlin, (Eds.), Occupational Ergonomics: Theory and Application. (pp. 279-302) New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. This chapter describes current best practices in designing ergonomically correct work stations for people with a variety of disability-related needs. Criteria for evaluating the ergonomic characteristics and risk potential of particular work stations are presented. In total, this chapter presents a comprehensive model for designing and evaluating ergonomic work stations in industry as part of safety enhancement procedures.

Cotter, D. & Williams, C. (1997). Managing health-related absences. Compensations and Benefits Review 29(3), 58-64. This article discusses how employers can manage employee disability and absenteeism to control costs and improve the corporate climate. Cost control begins with understanding the physical and psychological reasons for being absent and the most effective responses. The authors guide employers through the process of creating cost-effective disability management programs. They also offer help in enlisting the participation of the entire corporation - particularly senior management and first-line supervisors. The article outlines return-to-work initiatives and the development and operation of disability management teams to help employers reintegrate injured employees back into the workplace.

Crystal, R. (1993). Development of rehabilitation in business and industry: implications for rehabilitation counselor training. In L. Perlman & C. Hansen (Eds.), Private Sector Rehabilitation: Insurance, Trends & Issues for the 21st Century: A Report on the 17th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (pp. 9-19). Alexandria, VA: National Rehabilitation Association. This chapter describes the development and growth of rehabilitation in business and industry. The author places special emphasis on the implications of these developments for graduate-level training of rehabilitation counselors. The role of rehabilitation counselors in providing return-to-work services for injured employees is highlighted.

Daly, J. (1997). The role of the physical therapist in transitional work programs. In D. Shrey, & M. Lacerte, (Eds). Principles and Practices of Disability Management in Industry (pp. 107-131). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. This chapter illustrates the key role of physical therapists in designing, implementing, and evaluating transitional work programs for injured workers who are recovering from their injuries. As part of a comprehensive disability management program, physical therapists provide proactive education, physical conditioning programs, reactive treatment of injuries, rehabilitation and reconditioning programs, and functional capacities evaluations. Qualifications, roles, and functions of physical therapists in transitional employment programs are emphasized.

Fabian, E., & Watersworth, A. (1993). Reasonable accommodations for workers with serious mental illness: Type, frequency, and associated outcomes. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 17(2), 163-172. This article reports findings from a research study of the on-the-accommodations used by workers with serious long-term mental illness. Thirty participants took part in the investigation, and they reported using a total of 231 accommodations in performing their jobs. The most frequently identified accommodation was orientation and training of supervisors to provide needed assistance, followed by modifications of the non-physical work environment and modifications of work hours and/or schedules. Employment tenure (longevity) was significantly associated with the number of job accommodations used.

Fenelle, C. (1997). New trends and approaches: Keeping track of disability management. Risk Management 44(6), 76. This article discusses how managing disability claims and rehabilitative programs carries hidden costs and demands close management attention. Integrated Disability Management (IDM) returns people to work and keeps them there, which is critical to maintain productivity in the workplace. New disability categories that have been recognized only recently complicate efforts to manage disability expenses. IDM emphasizes early assessment of potential disabilities and the implementation of safety programs and medical case management which is beneficial to companies and employees.

Fletcher, M. (1998). Analytical tool can measure efforts. Business Insurance 32(11), 59. This article discusses a new framework which was developed at the Workers= Compensation Research Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This framework identifies 6 business processes and 4 outcomes as essential components in defining disability management which help accurately access the impact of disability and medical management efforts on worker=s compensation programs.

Fletcher, M. (1998). Trends require long-term outlook. Business Insurance 32(45), 62-64. This article discusses how the role of a risk manager is shifting to focusing more on finances, according to a recent survey. This role shift requires more risk managers to focus on saving money in the short-run without considering the long-run consequences. The author shows societal trends including richer employee benefits packages, technological advances and a focus on quality management. The challenges in integrating disability management include: integrating health care plans; arranging local delivery of medical services; and collecting, measuring and using medical data and outcomes.

French, N., Bray, G., Hartwell, J., & Tyler, D. (1999).Cost of employee assistance programs: Comparison of national estimates from 1993 and 1995. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research 26(1A), 95-103. This article reports findings from two national surveys of employee assistance programs (EAPs) to estimate the costs of providing EAP services during 1993 and 1995. EAP costs are determined by program types, worksite size (i.e., number of employees), industry, and region. The authors also report program information to determine the most common types and categories of EAP services and whether service delivery changes have occurred between 1993 and 1995.

Genaidy, A. (1996). Physical work capacity: Principles and applications. In A. Bhattacharya, & J. McGlothlin, (Eds.) Occupational Ergonomics: Theory and Application. (pp. 219-234) New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. This chapter provides an excellent review of physical work capacity evaluations. Topic areas include components of a physical work capacity evaluation, factors considered, administration procedures, and normative physical work capacity data.

Gilbride, D. (1993). Educating practitioners for work in the private sector. In L. Perlman & C. Hansen (Eds.), Private-Sector Rehabilitation: Insurance, Trends and Issues for the 21st Century: A Report on the 17th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (pp. 20-30). Alexandria, VA: National Rehabilitation Association. This chapter examines changes in both private and public-sector vocational rehabilitation services during the 1980s and 1990s. The author makes the point that private and public- sector rehabilitationists share similar goals in terms of client outcomes, but that they differe significantly in the way they deploy services to meet those goals. Service delivery areas which are contrasted within public and private-sector contexts include supported employment, disability management, and consulting.

Gostin, L., & Beyer, H. (1993). Implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act: Rights and Responsibilities of All Americans. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co. This book presents a description of the Americans with Disabilities Act in a broad societal context. The authors examine implications of the Act for such stakeholders as educators, attorneys, rehabilitation professionals, disability advocates, architects, administrators, employers, business operators, and individuals with disabilities. Explanations of the statutory requirements of the Act are provided, along with perspectives on the unresolved medical, social, and legal issues brought forth by the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Gowen, N. (1996). The case for integration. OH & S Canada 12(7), 68-73. This article discusses how integrating health and disability management gives employers a greater opportunity to intervene before injuries and illnesses become disability claims of any kind - whether workers= compensation claims or short or long-term disability claims. A case study of a company that is taking a proactive approach to maintaining employee health and well-being through an integrated health and disability management program is provided.

Granger, B., & Richard, S. (1997). Findings from a national survey of job coaches and job developers about job accommodations arranged between employers and people with psychiatric disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 9(3), 235-251. This article describes the methods and results of a survey completed by 194 job coaches and job developers who work with people with psychiatric disabilities. The most frequently implemented job accommodations included use of a job coach in facilitating communication, telephone access to the job coach, use of positive feedback, schedule modifications (especially part-time work), and gradual or sequential introductions of required work tasks. The authors also noted that the costs of providing accommodations for people with psychiatric disabilities are generally low, and that disclosure often takes place before the job offer when job coaches are involved.

Grant, K. (1996).Job analysis. In A. Bhattacharya, & J. McGlothlin, (Eds.) Occupational Ergonomics: Theory and Application. (pp. 259-278) New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. This chapter presents strategies for conducting ergonomic job analyses. The authors note the importance of job analysis techniques in identifying work conditions and job demands associated with the onset of fatigue, overexertion, injuries, and chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Topic areas include the fundamentals of job analysis, a review of current best practices, and future concerns.

Griffin, M. (1996).Occupational human vibration. In A. Bhattacharya, & J. McGlothlin, (Eds.), Occupational Ergonomics: Theory and Application. (pp. 605-626) New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. The chapter examines the effects of vibration in the workplace on workers= productivity and health status. The author summarizes the effects on the body of such vibrations as whole body vibration, hand vibration, and noise vibration. Strategies for minimizing the injurious effects of industrial vibration are presented.

Grossman, P. (1992). Employment discrimination law for the learning disabled community. Learning Disability Quarterly 15(4), 287-329. This article gives a comprehensive review of court decisions concerning persons with learning disabilities (LDs). These court decisions demonstrate that it is not easy to convince employers and judges that individuals with LDs are covered by disability discrimination laws, that such persons are entitled to reasonable accommodations to perform their jobs competently, or that the use of expert advice by employers may be necessary to identify effective ways to remove traditional barriers to the employment of persons with LDs. The author gives strategies for developing disability discrimination laws that are favorable to the LD community.

Growick, B. (1993). Rehabilitation in workers compensation: A growth potential. In L. Perlman & C. Hansen (Eds.), Private Sector Rehabilitation: Insurance, Trends and Issues for the 21st Century: A Report on the 17th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (pp. 68-70). Alexandria, VA: National Rehabilitation Association. This paper illustrates the compatibility between rehabilitation counseling and workers compensation. The author makes the point that workers compensation, first and foremost, is about returning injured workers to productive, meaningful activity -- and that the core skills of rehabilitation counselors lend themselves to management of the services required to meet that objective. Future trends in workers compensation and industrial rehabilitation are projected.

Gutman, A. (1993). EEO Law and Personnel Practices. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. This book helps readers untangle the federal regulations in equal employment opportunity laws. The author focuses on those federal regulations, including the (Americans with Disabilities Act), which deal with race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age and disability. The author uses six key questions to examine the various laws and court decisions: who is protected; from whom; against what type of practices; using what type of administrative procedures; resulting in what types of penalties for breaking the law and, what are the types of defenses and attacks used in.

Habeck, R., & Kirchener, K. (1999). Case management issues within employer-based disability management. In F. Chan & M. Leahy (Eds.), Health Care and Disability Case Management (pp. 239-264). Lake Zurich, IL: Vocational Consultants Press. This chapter delineates the role of case managers in employer-based disability management programs. The authors note that more than 8 percent of payroll costs nationwide are attributed to costs associated with disability, and that many employers have been able to substantially reduce the cost of disability in the workplace with a dual emphasis on workplace safety and early intervention for injured workers. Chapter topics include disability management concepts, case management withint he disability management context, emerging trends and professional challenges, and future implications of employer-based disability management programming.

Harkins, D., & Moyer, J. (1997). Employer relations: Job development, job retention, and job accommodation. In J. Moore & W. Graves (Eds.), Foundations of Rehabilitation Counseling With Persons Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired (pp. 313-340). New York: American Foundation for the Blind. This chapter disputes the widely held belief that employers are resistant to hiring people with visual impairments. The authors make the point that when employers understand the potential benefits of hiring qualified workers who are blind, they are more likely to act favorably upon a person=s application. Most employers do, however, need information and assistance to become comfortable with the proposition that they should hire people with disabilities. Employers may also need assistance to identify on-the-job accommodations and other assistance that may be required for a worker with a visual impairment to perform his or her job. Strategies to assist blind workers in seeking, securing, and maintaining employment are emphasized.

Havranek, J. (1997). Historical perspectives on the rehabilitation counseling profession and disability management. In D. Shrey, & M. Lacerte, (Eds), Principles and Practices of Disability Management in Industry (pp. 355-370). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. This chapter places disability management programming within an historical context in the development of the rehabilitation counseling profession. The author examines key factors in the emergence of disability management as a rehabilitation counseling intervention, including counseling strategies, disability benefit rehabilitation, medical treatment, changes in the workplace, and forensic rehabilitation. The emergence of private-sector rehabilitation in the 1980s is featured as an indication of the expanding role of rehabilitation counselors.

Hendricks, D.J. & Hirsh, A.E. (1991). The Job Accommodation Network: A vital resource for the 90's. Rehabilitation Education 5(4). This article describes the utilization and impact of the Job Accommodation Network, a telephone hotline sponsored by the President=s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities. Housed at West Virginia University in Morgantown, the network is available to employees with disabilities and rehabilitation professionals wishing to gain information about how to accommodate specific disability-related work limitations. Network staff members research particular accommodation strategies and report back to callers as part of a Ajust in time@ technical assistance process.

Hergenrader, R. (1997). Hands-on disability management on the rise. National Underwriter 101(7), 8-10. This article shows how employers are now seeking ways to control the rising cost of disability insurance after claiming victory in their efforts to curb expenses on group health and then workers= compensation. Integrated Disability Management (IDM) is a new option for cost management that is making it=s way to employers.

Hoffman, S., & Pransky, G. (1998). Pre-employment examinations and the Americans with Disabilities Act: How best to avoid liabilities under federal law. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 8(4), 255-263. This article reviews aspects of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) relevant to pre-employment examinations. Two recent decisions directly related to examining physicians are focused on. The authors hope to assist physicians in understanding the scope of the law and their appropriate role in performing these evaluations so that they may avoid liability for themselves or employers and achieve equal access to employment for all.

Holt, L. (1993). The history of private-sector rehabilitation. In L. Perlman & C. Hansen (Eds), Private Sector Rehabilitation: Insurance, Trends and Issues for the 21st Century: A Report On the 17th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (pp. 63-65). Alexandria, VA: National Rehabilitation Association. This paper chronicles the emergence of private-sector rehabilitation services in the United States, with particular focus on changes in the health care and workers compensation industries. The author forecasts a continued move toward privatization of vocational rehabilitation in the future.

Isernhagen, S., Hart, D., & Matheson, L. (1998).Ergonomics in education: Fad, failure, or fraction of back injury prevention? Work 10(3), 293-297. Ergonomics is the science of design of worksites and work methods which influence production performance. In recent years, worker complaints and reports of injuries have prompted evaluation of the effect of work stressors on workers. The rehabilitation specialist plays a pivotal role in both prevention and management of on-the-job injuries. This article presents philosophical and curricular guidelines for developing educational programs in the area of ergonomics.

Jaet, D., & McMahon, B. (1999). Implications of disability legislation for case managers. In F. Chan & M. Leahy (Eds.), Health Care and Disability Case Management (pp. 213-238). Lake Zurich, IL: Vocational Consultants Press. This chapter overviews selected laws pertaining to the employment of people with disabilities. Topics include Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act, discrimination decisions made by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Family and Medical Leave Act, state workers compensation statutes, and the Social Security Administration=s disability programs. Resources are provided to assist rehabilitation professionals in gaining a thorough understanding of disability legislation.

Justesen, T., & Menlove, M. (1994). Assistive technology education in rehabilitation counselor programs. Rehabilitation Education 7(4), 253-260. This article defines assistive technology and examines the relevance of assistive technology to legislative initiatives such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and the 1992 Rehabilitation Act Amendments. The author describes an innovative assistive technology training program at Utah State University and discusses implications for rehabilitation education as well as counselor practice.

Lasky, R. (1997). Occupational stress: A disability management perspective. In D. Shrey, & M. Lacerte, (Eds), Principles and Practices of Disability Management in Industry (pp. 371-410). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. This chapter examines the impact of occupational stress on workplace safety and risk management. Controlling stress in the workplace is presented as an integral element of comprehensive disability management programs. Heightened expectations regarding productivity, rapid changes in the economy, and career transience are noted as contributors to the excessive psychological stress which typifies the 1990s American workplace.

Lerner, J. (1998). The new direction in disability management. Business & Health 16(10), 36-45. This article addresses the fact that passive acceptance that a newly disabled employee needs to be out of work indefinitely is not an effective way to manage disability. Astute employers are taking on a broader view by starting disability management programs. These employers operate under the assumption that the vast majority of claimants want to work, and they devote the bulk of their energy to getting them off the disability rolls and back into the workplace. A veteran benefits consultant who has personally battled disability offers advice on developing a humane and cost-effective program.

Lui, J., Chan, F., Kwok, J., & Thorson, R. (1999). Managed care concepts in the delivery of case management services. In F. Chan & M. Leahy (Eds.), Health Care and Disability Case Management (pp. 91-120). Lake Zurich, IL: Vocational Consultants Press. This chapter examines the movement in American health care from a provider-driven system to a payer-driven system. The authors make the point that managed care has become a centerpiece of reform in the disability compensation and health care systems. Specific topics include managed health care concepts, managed care in workers compensation, integrated health care systems, and the future of managed care in rehabilitation and health care services.

Mazloff, D. (1998). The importance of strategic worksite health promotion: A study of employee knowledge and employee assistance program promotion. Employee Assistance Quarterly 14(2), 47-66. This article examines 98 employees= awareness of their employer=s employee assistance program (EAP). Workers were surveyed about their knowledge of the EAP=s services and their preferred sources for learning about the program. Results indicated that employees were not knowledgeable about the EAP. Workers indicated that meetings with EAP service providers were the most preferred way to learn about services.

McCrohan, N., Mobray, C., Bybe, D., & Harris, S. (1994).Employment histories and expectations of persons with psychiatric disorders. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 38(1), 59-71. This article presents data from persons with psychiatric disorders describing past and desired jobs, salient job characteristics, needs for reasonable accommodations, employer reactions, obstacles to employment, and the impact of work on other aspects of life. Implications for rehabilitation professionals and employers are discussed.

McMahon, B.T., Shaw, L.R., & Jaet, D.N. (1995). An empirical analysis: Employment and disability from an ADA litigation perspective. NARPPS Journal, 10(2), 3-14. This article presents findings from a research study of the discrimination complaints filed by people with disabilities under Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act between 1992 and 1994. Findings from the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission revealed that the most common type of alleged disability-based discrimination was unlawful termination, followed by failure to provide reasonable accommodations and harassment. More than 85% of Title I complaints during the observation period were filed by standing employees, whereas less than 15% of complaints referred to the hiring process.

Merbitz, C., Lam, C., Chan, F., & Thomas, K. (1999). Assistive technology for case managers. In F. Chan & M. Leahy (Eds.), Health Care and Disability Case Management (pp. 379-414). Lake Zurich, IL: Vocational Consultants press. This chapter overviews assistive technology, defined as Aany item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized that is used to increase or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.@ Topics covered include applications for case managers, models of assistive technology and on-the-job accommodations, strategies for conducting technology assessments, and assistive technology resources for employers and rehabilitation professionals.

Mital, A. (1997). Ergonomics, injury prevention, and disability management. In D. Shrey, & M. Lacerte, (Eds), Principles and Practices of Disability Management in Industry (pp. 157-176). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. This chapter delineates the role of ergonomics and injury prevention in comprehensive disability management programs. The author describes the responsibilities of production engineers, industrial engineers, work physiologists, medical and occupational health and safety professionals, design engineers, and industrial hygienists in developing safer, more productive workplaces.

Moss, K., Johnsen, M, & Ullman, M. (1998). Assessing employment discrimination charges filed by individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies 9(1), 81-105. This article presents findings from analyses of nationwide data on employment discrimination charges filed under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The analyses placed emphasis on understanding the extent to which the ADA charge process differentially effects individuals with psychiatric disabilities. The study also assessed the relationship between personal characteristics of people who filed ADA charges, issues over which charges were filed, offices where they were filed, and charge outcomes. The authors found that 16.3% of individuals whose charges closed as of June 30, 1995, received benefits from filing charges. Individuals with psychiatric disabilities were only somewhat less likely to experience benefits from filing charges than were individuals with nonpsychiatric disabilities and individuals with schizophrenia had a strikingly lower benefit rate than individuals with all other types of psychiatric disorders.

Oher, J., Conti, D., & Jongesma, A. (1998). The Employee Assistance Treatment Planner. New York: John Wiley & Sons. This book provides a thorough guide to employee assistance programs (EAPs) in industry. EAPs are workplace-based services designed to identify and aid employees who need professional assistance with problems in living that frequently impair their job performance. These problems are also connected to alcohol and other drug use, marital and/or familial stressors, psychological disorders, or other disabling conditions. This planner helps the EAP counselor to assess and serve the mental health and other disability-related needs of covered employees.

Owens, P. (1993). Insurance issues and trends: A focus on disability management including rehabilitation. In L. Perlman & C. Hansen (Eds.), Private Sector Rehabilitation: Insurance, Trends & Issues for the 21st Century: A Report on the 17th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar. Alexandria, VA: National Rehabilitation Association. This chapter casts health and disability insurance trends within the context of disability management programs. The author compares and contrasts private-insured and self- insured employers in terms of the benefits associated with implementing disability management in industry. The role of rehabilitation counselors in an over-arching disability management system is emphasized.

Parette, H. (1997). Assistive technology devices and services. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities 32(4), 267-280. This article explains recent policies concerning assistive devices and services for people with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities. The author examines the role of technology in preserving and enhancing the quality of life, employability, and independence of people with severe disabilities. Recommendations include greater emphasis on identification of appropriate devices and services, family and culturally sensitive team processes to identify technology strategies, and greater use of alternative funding systems.

Payne, N. (1997). Job accommodations: What works and why. In P. Gerber & Brown, D. (Eds.), Learning Disabilities and Employment (pp. 255-273). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. This chapter discusses job accommodation strategies for workers with learning disabilities. The authors emphasize the process of disclosing one=s disability status to an employer, especially in the event that the disabling condition is not visually obvious. A model for developing job accommodations (assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation) is offfered, and examples of specific on-the-job accommodations and compensatory learning strategies are presented.

Peele, P., Scholle, S., Kelleher, K., & Lave, J. (1998). Costs of employee behavioral health care by diagnosis. Psychiatric Services 49(12), 1549. This article examines the types of mental health disorders for which employees receive treatment and the direct medical costs of these disorders to employers. The authors found that, among approximately 150,000 covered employees, 11,689 filed 87,557 behavioral health claims over a 12-month period (1996). Depression was the most frequently cited diagnosis.

Power, P. & Dell Orto, A. (1997). Disability management: A family perspective. In D. Shrey, & M. Lacerte, (Eds), Principles and Practices of Disability Management in Industry (pp. 411-432). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. This chapter examines issues related to the families of injured workers. Given that more than half of the American work force can expect to interrupt their employment due to injury or disability, the authors emphasize the impact of work-related disability on the economic, social, and emotional well-being of the worker=s significant others. Topics include familial reactions to the disability experience, demonstrated interventions for families of injured workers, and the role of on-site disability managers in providing family support services.

Radwin, R., Beebe, D., Webster, J. & Yen, T. (1996). Instrumentation for occupational ergonomics. In A. Bhattacharya, & J. McGlothlin, (Eds.) Occupational Ergonomics: Theory and Application (pp. 165-194). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. This chapter focuses on the instruments and measurement techniques that ergonomists employ in gauging a worker=s biomechanical functioning. The authors review both electronic and mechanical devices for measuring such factors as human motion, physiological processes, metabollism, and muscle strength.

Ryan, C.P. (1995). Work isn=t what it used to be: Implications, recommendations, and strategies for vocational rehabilitation. Journal of Rehabilitation 61(4), 7-15. This article examines the changing American labor market in the mid-1990s. As the economy continues to move from a manufacturing base to one of service and information processing, the author notes a number of implications for the employment of people with disabilities. Strategies to assist vocational rehabilitation professionals in adopting job placement strategies consistent with labor market trends are also provided.

Satcher, J. (1992). Responding to employer concerns about the ADA and job applicants with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling 23, 37-40. This article provides rehabilitation counselors with specific information to assist employers in complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act. The author notes that counselors can help in dispelling myths and stereotypes about people with disabilities and assist employers in identifying needed accommodations in the workplace.

Satcher, J., & Hendren, G. (1991). Acceptance of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 by persons preparing to enter the business field. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling 22(2), 15-18. This article presents a research study of attitudes toward Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act among 131 college students who were preparing to enter the business field. Subjects were relatively moderate in their attitudes toward people with disabilities and relatively accepting of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Implications for management training and rehabilitation counselor practice are presented.

Scheer, S. (1997). The role of the physician in disability management. In D. Shrey, & M. Lacerte, (Eds), Principles and Practices of Disability Management in Industry (pp. 175-206). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. This chapter outlines the role of the physician in disability management programs. The author notes that many of the important knowledge domains for physicians working in the workers compensation or disability management systems are not adequately addressed in undergraduate or graduate medical training. Recommendations are made to provide training for physicians in the areas of mobility, self-care, home safety, workplace hazards, toxic exposure, and the effects of medical problems on work performance.

Shrey, D. (1997). Disability management practice at the worksite: Developing, implementing, and evaluating transitional work programs. In D. Shrey, & M. Lacerte, (Eds), Principles and Practices of Disability Management in Industry (pp. 55-106). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. This chapter provides guidelines for rehabilitation professionals and employers in developing transitional employment programs for injured workers. Transitional employment programs involve light duty tasks which the worker performs while he or she gradually restores his or her physical capacities. Topics include foundational principles of transitional employment, procedures for establishing transitional work programs, and methods for evaluating and/or enhancing transitional work programs.

Shrey, D. & Hursh, N. (1997). Protecting the employability of the working elderly. In D. Shrey, & M. Lacerte, (Eds), Principles and Practices of Disability Management in Industry (pp. 499-518). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. The escalating number of older workers in the American labor force signals a clear need for industry to examine the relationship between the aging process, disability incidence, productivity, and health care costs. This chapter focuses on disability management issues specific to the needs of older workers. The authors provide strategies for employers and rehabilitation professionals to use in meeting the various employment needs of older workers.

Szymanski, E., & Parker, R. (1996). Work and Disability: Issues and Strategies in Career Development and Job Placement. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. This book serves as an outstanding guide to all aspects of employment for people with disabilities. Chapters include such topics as psychosocial and economic aspects of work, legislation related to career counseling and job placement, career development theories and research, vocational assessment, accommodations in the workplace, occupational and labor market information, career development interventions, a business perspective on job development, job search and employer negotiation strategies, supported employment, and job placement theories and practices.

Trach, J., Beatty, S., & Sheldon, D. (1998). Employers and service providers' perspectives regarding natural supports in the work environment. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 41(2), 293-312. This article presents a research study of employers who have used natural supports in providing accommodations to supported employees. Interview results indicated that employers did not provide any natural supports to supported employees beyond those they would offer to other employees, nor did the additional supports change the current work environment except in a positive manner. In comparison, service providers in sheltered work programs expressed more unrealistic expectations regarding natural supports than their counterparts working in community-based settings.

Walker, J. (1993). The difference between disability and impairment: A distinction worth making. Journal of Occupation Rehabilitation 3(3), 167-172. This article casts the functional aspects of a person=s health condition, not the underlying diagnosis or impairment, as the most important consideration in any vocationally relevant service program. The author notes that impairment defines the dysfunction or abnormality in a particular organ or body system, and that disability defines what the impairment precludes the person from doing. The emphasis on functional capacities is highly consistent with current workers compensation statutes and with the Americans with Disabilities Act=s employment provisions.

Walls, R., & Fullmer, S. (1996). Comparing rehabilitated workers with the United States work force. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 40(2), 153-164. This article examines the employment outcomes of 100,375 former clients of state Vocational Rehabilitation agencies as they related to the distribution of full-time workers in the United States. Results indicated that workers with disabilities were underrepresented in jobs related to the service industries. Starting salaries of workers with disabilities were comparable to or exceeded general work force salaries in 20 of the 24 occupations sampled.

Weed, R.O., & Sluis, A. (1990). Life Care Plans for the Amputee: A Step by Step Guide. Orlando, FL: Paul M. Deutsch Press. This book describes a model for developing life care plans for people who have incurred amputations. The authors present a comprehensive method for identifying and projecting future service needs in the area of medical care, psychosocial development/adjustment, vocational considerations, and independent living. Planning to assist clients in developing appropriate self-care regimens is also emphasized.

Zuckerman, D. (1993). Reasonable accommodations for people with mental illness under the ADA. Mental & Physical Disability Law Reporter 17(3), 311-320. This article outlines guidelines for the hiring and employment of people with mental illness, as specified by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Aspects of the hiring process that are reviewed include: qualification standards; safety concerns; evaluating direct threat; applications; interviews and testing; and medical exams and inquiries. The author focuses on the process of providing reasonable accommodations in the workplace, education in the workplace, and on-the-job-accommodations.

Zuckerman, D., & Moore, K. (1993). The ADA and People With Mental Illness: A Resource Manual for Employers. Alexandria, VA: American Bar Association. This book addresses the issue of how even though many employers have examined and adjusted practices and polices as they affect people with disabilities, many continue to need guidance on general concerns. Employers also need assistance in answering specific questions, including what they can and cannot ask during the application/interview process, how to evaluate an applicant=s or employee=s qualifications, and what constitutes a reasonable accommodation. This manual identifies legal issues and will help employer=s understand mental illnesses, the abilities of and the difficulties faced by people with these conditions and how to comply with the ADA.