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Disability Management Reference I

by Phil Rumrill

Akabas, S., Gates, L., & Galvin, D. (1992). Disability management. New York: Amacom. This book overviews the philosophy and practice of disability management. Historical perspectives are provided in the areas of workers compensation, labor law, and occupational safety and health. The cost benefits of preventing work- related injuries and delivering early intervention services to injured workers are emphasized. The authors emphasize collaboration among all stakeholders in workplace safety and return-to-work services as the key to effective worksite rehabilitation programming.

Allaire, S. (1998). Vocational rehabilitation for persons with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), 253-260. This article provides a thorough overview of the career development implications of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common chronic illnesses affecting workers over the age of 50 worldwide, and it can have a devastating impact on a person=s ability to continue his or her career. The article discusses medical, psychological, and social aspects of the illness, and it provides a framework for addressing the needs of workers with rheumatoid arthritis via reasonable accommodations.

American Health Consultants, Inc. (1992). Restricted duty programs get people working quicker. Back Pain Monitor, 10(2). Atlanta, GA: Author. This article describes the key components of light duty, also known as transitional employment, programs for injured workers. Transitional employment enables the worker to recover from his or her injuries while continuing to engage in paid employment. In many cases the work itself becomes part of the person=s physical therapy regimen. The worker=s previous tasks are gradually restored as healing continues, with the end goal being unrestricted return to the worker=s previous job. Transitional employment programs are time-limited by design, and the worker performs light duty tasks only until his or her healing has been completed.

Arnold, N., Seekins, T., & Ravesloot, C. (1995). Self-employment as a vocational rehabilitation employment outcome in rural and urban areas. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 39(2), 94-106. The article explores self-employment as a viable career option for people with disabilities. The authors present self-employment strategies for people with disabilities in both rural and urban settings, and they suggest that self- employment and home-based jobs will become more plentiful for people with and without disabilities as the U.S. economy continues its increasing emphasis on information and technology.

Baer, R., Martonyi, E., Simmons, T., Flexer, R., & Goebel, G. (1994). Employer collaboration: A tri-lateral group process model. Journal of Rehabilitation Administration, 18(3), 151-163. In this article, the authors describe a model for rehabilitation professionals to use in collaboration with employers. The group process model includes three stakeholders in the employment and career maintenance of people with disabilities -- employers, rehabilitation professionals, and people with disabilities themselves. For job placement, accommodation, and retention interventions to be successful, the needs and concerns of all three parties must be met. Guidelines are also presented to assist employers in identifying personnel and reasonable accommodation resources.

Baron, S.A. (1993). Violence in the workplace: A prevention and management guide for businesses. Ventura, CA: Pathfinder. This book serves as an excellent guide for employers in addressing the growing problem of workplace violence. Dual focus is placed on preventing violent episodes by careful assessments of the work environment and on providing supports for victims of workplace assaults. Resources to assist businesses in implementing violence prevention and management procedures are also included.

Bell, C. (1993). The Americans with Disabilities Act and injured workers: Implications for rehabilitation professionals and the worker=s compensation system. Rehabilitation Psychology, 38(2), 103-114. This article describes the implications of the Americans with Disabilities Act to state workers compensation systems. The author examines how employees= civil rights to reasonable accommodations correspond with transitional employment (light duty) services in a disability management context. Other key issues include employee disclosure and rights to privacy, labor unions and their involvement in employment policies, and injury prevention initiatives.

Berkowitz, M. (1990). Should rehabilitation be mandatory in workers' compensation programs. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 1(1), 63-80. This article examines concepts of consumer choice, client involvement, and equity as they apply to mandatory rehabilitation services in workers compensation. The author considers whether injured workers receiving income maintenance benefits from state workers compensation systems should be forced to participate in return-to-work services in order to continue receiving benefits.

Berkowitz, M., & Berkowitz, E.D. (1991). Rehabilitation in the work injury program. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 34, 182-196. This article examines the process by which injured workers receive services to aid them in returning to their jobs. It contrasts vocational rehabilitation services for injured workers with those provided for people with severe disabilities in the state-Federal Vocational Rehabilitation program. The premium placed on early intervention and cost containment is described as the primary distinguishing feature of work injury rehabilitation.

Bhattacharya, A., & McGlothlin, J. (1996). Occupational ergonomics: Theory and applications. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. This book offers an excellent guide to ergonomics and human factors engineering. It focuses on workplace safety and the prevention of work-related injuries. The text provides guidelines and standards for employers and employees to follow in reducing the incidence and impact of work-related injuries. Strategies for assessing workplace safety, coordinating return-to-work services for injured workers, providing early-intervention medical services, and monitoring the ongoing effectiveness of safety initiatives are featured.

Bigos, S.J., Battie, M.C., Spengler, L.D., Fisher, L.D., Fordyce, W.E., Hansson, T., Nachemoson, A.L., & Zeh, J. (1992). A longitudinal prospective study of industrial back injury reporting. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, 279, 21-34. This article examines the costs and re-injury rates associated with back injuries injuries in industrial settings. Back injuries are, by far, the most common type of work-related injuries in the United States, and health care and lost productivity costs associated with back injuries are estimated in the $ billions. The need to establish medically sound transitional employment programs as a means of preventing re-injuries for people with back problems is emphasized.

Blumenthal, S. (1992). Impact of the ADA on the vocational rehabilitation of industrial injured workers under workers compensation. In the Mainstream, 17(1), 19-22. This article projects the impact of the newly (1992) effective Americans with Disabilities Act on return-to-work prospects for workers injured in industrial settings. The authors predict that employers will be expected to take a more active role in accommodating injured or ill workers. Differences between civil rights provisions in the Americans with Disabilities Act and the insurance provisions of state workers compensation statutes are identified.

Bonfiglio, R.P., & Bonfiglio, R.L. (1992). Medical testimony in workers compensation matters. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitatin Clinics in North America, 3, 665-676. This article discusses the role of physicians in making determinations regarding an injured worker=s employability. The authors make the point that medical information is a necessary, but not sufficient, part of what determines a person=s ability to work. Couching medical testimony in a functional context and understanding the limitations of certain medical evidence are emphasized as priorities for responsible medical experts.

Bose, J., Geist, G., Lam, C., Slaby, N., & Arens, M. (1998). Factors affecting job placement success in proprietary rehabilitation. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 29(3), 19-24. This article presents a research study of the factors associated with job placement outcomes for injured workers. The authors found disability-related factors such as the presence of a spinal cord injury and limitations affecting the arms or hands to be related to poor return-to-work prospects. Injured workers= previous work histories and level of involvement in developing the return-to-work plan were also associated with job placement outcomes.

Bruyere, S.M. & Shrey, D.E. (1991). Disability management in industry: A joint labor-management process. Rehabilitation Counseling, Bulletin, 34 (3), 227-242. This article examines the conflict between organized labor and management representatives in addressing injury prevention and workers compensation strategies in industrial settings. The authors describe a joint labor/management return-to-work program, coupled with proactive safety enhancement initiatives, as the best way to cut costs associated with disability in the workplace and maintain corporate competitiveness.

Buys, N. (1993). Management in the 1990s: A time for employer-based rehabilitation. Journal of Rehabilitation Administration, 7-11. This article recommends reforms in workers compensation practices that encourage employers to conduct rehabilitation services for injured workers at the job site. Strategies are identified for developing disability management programs that include input from employees at all levels, management, labor representatives, medical personnel, and rehabilitation professionals. Dual emphasis is placed on improving workplace safety and implementing early return-to-work strategies for ill or injured employees.

Chan, F., Reid, C., Kaskel, L., Roldan, G., Rahami, M., & Mpofu, E. (1997). Vocational evaluation and assessment of people with disabilities. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North American, 8, 311-325. This article provides a current and very thorough overview of vocational assessment strategies for people with disabilities in a variety of service settings. The authors describe best practices in personality, interest, aptitude, and work skill assessment -- all of which lead to a clear picture of the client=s vocational potential. Specific tools are cited for each type of evaluation, and the use of technology in vocational assessment is a prominent theme.

Chelius, J., Galvin, D., & Owens, P. (1992). Disability: It=s more expensive than you think. Business and Health, 11(4), 78-84. This article considers the overall costs of disability in the workplace in terms of (a) health care, (b) lost wages, (c) lost productivity, (d) turnover, (e) employee morale, and (f) workers compensation costs. The authors make the point that containing and controlling the costs of work-related injuries constitute an investment in the company=s Abottom line@ profitability. Employers are, therefore, encouraged to take proactive steps in establishing policies and procedures to reduce both the incidence and impact of work-related disabilities.

Crystal, R.M. (1987). Developing a business-industry emphasis in the curriculum. Rehabilitation Education, 1 (2/3), 139-141. This article is one of the first to identify the need for business and industry training in rehabilitation counseling. The author looks at how the National Council on Rehabilitation Education and the National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector have advocated for graduate-level coursework in market trends and job analysis, insurance contracts and practices, and workers compensation laws. In the years since this seminal article was published, many rehabilitation counselor education programs have established coursework in disability management, ergonomics, private-sector rehabilitation, and supervision and management. The accuracy of the author=s predictions is also born in the burgeoning growth of private-sector employment opportunities which have been increasingly available to rehabilitation counselors in recent years.

Diksa, E., & Rogers, E. (1996). Employer concerns about hiring persons with psychiatric disability: Results of the employer attitude questionnaire. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 40(1), 31-44. This article presents a research study of employer attitudes toward hiring people with disabilities. The authors present the employer attitudes questionnaire as a useful tool for rehabilitation professionals to use in job placement and retention activities on behalf of individuals with disabilities. As has been documented in numerous other studies, employers were most receptive to hiring employees with physical or sensory disabilities. They were least receptive to hiring people with psychiatric disabilities.

Elliott, R., & Jarrett, D. (1994). Violence in the workplace: The role of human resource management. Public Personnel Management, 23(2), 287-299. This article casts workplace violence as a human resources issue. It delineates strategies that human resources professionals can use in both preventing workplace violence and in controlling the impact of violent episodes on business operations. Lost time, productivity, and employee turnover associated with violence are indicated as the most prominent negative effects from a personnel management standpoint.

Falvo, D. (1991). Medical and psychosocial aspects of chronic illness and disability. Gaithesburg, MD: Aspen. This book serves as a complete guide to the medical, psychological, and social aspects of disability. It discusses disability issues by body system, including cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and urinary, endocrine, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, connective tissue, nervous, auditory, visual, and dermatological. The book also addresses issues related to cancer, blood and immunological disorders, substance abuse, and mental illness. Readers will gain a thorough understanding of the medical and psychosocial issues that result in work-related barriers for people with disabilities.

Gibbs, W. (1990). Alternative measures to evaluate the impact of Vocational Rehabilitation services. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 34(1), 33-43. This article presents a research study of the post-employment experiences of workers with disabilities. The author identified significant barriers to career maintenance among people who had successfully completed a Vocational Rehabilitation training program. Findings suggest a compelling need for reasonable accommodations, training in disability issues for employers, and work adjustment counseling to assist workers with disabilities in retaining employment.

Gilbride, D.D., Stensrude, R. & Johnson, M. (1994). Current models of job placement and employer development: Research, competencies and educational considerations. Rehabilitation Education, 7 (4), 215-239. This article discusses job placement strategies in various sectors of rehabilitation. The authors look at national data sources and professional literature in this growing sub-specialty area, address selected job placement issues for specific client populations (e.g., people of color, women, individuals with psychiatric disabilities), and delineate the competencies and qualifications of effective placement specialists in an increasingly complicated global marketplace.

Habeck, R. (1991). Managing disability in industry. NARPPS Journal and News, 6(3&4), 141-146. This article presents a comprehensive model for managing all aspects of disability in the workplace. The author suggests that injury prevention (safety), reasonable accommodations, transitional employment programs, employee assistance programs, and medical leave all be coordinated in a cohesive disability management system sponsored by the employer. Worksite-based disability management programs feature the active involvement of employees as well as management, and labor unions play a pivotal role in developing safety and return-to-work initiatives.

Habeck, R., Kress, M., Scully, S. & Kirchner, K. (1994). Determining the significance of the disability management movement. Rehabilitation Education, 8 (3), 195-240. This article summarizes and synthesizes the history, current status, and future impact of disability management programs on the way that America does business. The authors examine the impact that disability management initiatives have had in reducing the incidence of work-related injuries, containing the costs of disability in the workplace, and retaining good workers as a means of controlling turnover costs. The respective roles of various stakeholders in the disability management process (e.g., employers, workers, labor unions, medical personnel, insurance companies, rehabilitation counselors) are also explored.

Keim, J. (1999). Workplace violence and trauma: A 21st century rehabilitation issue. Journal of Rehabilitation, 65(1), 16-20. This article addresses the increased incidence of violence which has plagued the American workplace. The author describes the extent and prevalence of workplace violence, examines associated losses, presents profiles of perpetrators, and outlines the roles of rehabilitation professionals in addressing physical and psychological disabilities resulting from workplace violence. Resources to aid employers and rehabilitation professionals in reducing the incidence and impact of violence in the workplace are also provided.

Koch, L., & Rumrill, P. (1997). Rehabilitation counseling outside the state agency: Settings, roles, and functions for the new millennium. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 28(4), 9-14. This article explores the changing roles and functions of rehabilitation counselors as society enters the 21st Century. Burgeoning career and service opportunities are identified in employee assistance programs, worksite-based disability management programs, psychiatric rehabilitation, substance abuse counseling, geriatrics, and corrections. Implications for rehabilitation counselor education programs are included.

Koch, L., & Rumrill, P. (1998). The working alliance: An interdisciplinary case management strategy for health professionals. Work, 10(1), 55-62. This article describes the working alliance, an interdisciplinary case management strategy involving all stakeholders in the rehabilitation process (including employers and employees with disabilities). Specific strategies are provided to assist rehabilitation team members in developing bonds, establishing goals, selecting tasks, and resolving conflicts. Similar models have been applied in industry-based disability management programs.

Koch, L., Williams, C., & Rumrill, P. (1998). Increasing client involvement in vocational rehabilitation: An expectations-based approach to assessment and planning. Work, 10(3), 211-218. This article presents an approach to rehabilitation planning, job placement, and return-to- work for injured employees that is based upon the employee=s preferences and anticipations. The main point is that the worker=s expectations have a major impact on the services that will be provided, the extent to which he or she will participate in return- to-work activities, and the ultimate success of rehabilitation and disability management programs. Guidelines are presented to assist rehabilitation professionals and employers in assessing client/employee expectations at all phases of the rehabilitation process.

Krause, J. (1996). Employment after spinal cord injury: Transition and life adjustment. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 39(4), 244-255. This article overviews the issues that people with spinal cord injuries are likely to face in returning to the work force. It provides excellent information for rehabilitation professionals and employers as they assist employees in making vocational and life adjustment changes following initial recovery from traumatic injuries. Access to reasonable accommodations, transportation, and physical accessibility of the workplace are major adjustmental concerns.

Krause, J., & Anson, C. (1996). Self-perceived reasons for unemployment cited by persons with spinal cord injury: Relationship to gender, race, age, and level of injury. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 39(3), 217-227. This article presents a research study of the factors attributed to unemployment by people with spinal cord injuries. The authors examine demographic, cultural, and disability- related factors that may account for the significant difficulties associated with returning to work following spinal cord injury.

McMahon, B., Dancer, S., & Jaet, D. (1993). Providers of technical assistance and employers: Myths, concerns, and compliance behaviors related to the Americans with Disabilities Act. Journal of the National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector, 8, 53-66. This article describes a research study of employer compliance with Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Employers were asked to identify the types of assistance they sought from rehabilitation professionals. The two most frequently cited needs were information about how to accommodate people with disabilities from local resource agencies and the establishment of in-house disability management programs.

McMahon, B., & Domer, T. (1997). Twenty questions surrounding unpaid medical leave: Navigating the Bermuda Triangle of employment law. Work, 9(2), 129-145. This article presents an excellent side-by-side comparison of three laws related to the employment of people with disabilities: state Workers Compensation policies, the Family and Medical Leave Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. The authors point out that these laws often contradict one another, and that employees with disabilities who are eligible under all three laws can choose the law which provides them with the greatest protection. Special emphasis is placed on provisions related to unpaid medical leave, one of the most frequently requested accommodations for workers with disabilities.

McMahon, B.T. & Matkin, R.E. (1983). Preservice graduate education for private sector rehabilitation counselors. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 31 (4), 344-352. This article recognizes recent job growth and expansion for rehabilitation counselors in for-profit areas. The authors Discuss rehabilitation counselor education programs and the need for training in private sector work using the standards set forth by the National Council on Rehabilitation Education and the National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector. In total, the article demonstrates that rehabilitation educators have been concerned with disability management and other private rehabilitation ventures for many years.

McMahon, B.T., & Shrey, D. (1992) The Americans with Disabilities Act, disability management, and the injured worker. Journal of Workers Compensation, 1(4), 9-29. This article projects the impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act on future initiatives to aid injured workers in returning to their jobs. It presents proactive disability management services delivered at the worksite as a mechnaism for demonstrating compliance with the civil rights provisions in Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

McReynolds, C. (1998). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease: Shifting focus toward the chronic, long-term illness paradigm for rehabilitation practitioners. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), 231-240. This article presents a model for addressing the career development needs of workers with HIV/AIDS. The author suggests that the focus in HIV/AIDS rehabilitation has shifted from a terminal illness perspective to that of a chronic, treatable disease. Recommendations are presented to aid employers in making reasonable accommodations and in protecting the worker=s rights to privacy.

Merz, M., & Harvey, R. (1998). Career development theory as a framework for assessment and planning in clubhouse-based transitional employment programs for people with psychiatric disabilities. Work, 10(3), 219-233. This article describes the Clubhouse Model as a therapeutic employment intervention for people with psychiatric disabilities. The authors illustrate the effectiveness of a small- group approach to job placement and retention services, one built on open communication, promotion of health maintenance behaviors, and consumer advocacy. Coupling the Clubhouse Model with proactive treatment and a supportive work environment can help the worker greatly in establishing and/or maintaining his or her career.

Miller, T. (1991). Tracking the cost of accidents. Safety and Health Magazine. This article explicates the real costs of on-the-job injuries in terms of health care, lost time, diminished productivity, employee turnover, and workers compensation premiums. The author establishes a rationale for controlling escalating accident costs by enhanced awareness of safety issues on the part of employees at all levels.

Millington, M. (1997). The employment expectations questionnaire. New Orleans: Louisiana State University Medical Center. The Employment Expectations Questionnaire is an excellent tool for assessing a job applicant=s employability. The instrument consists of five scales: reliability, production, safety, social coping, and organizational coping. It has been used in numerous settings to assess employers= willingness to hire people with disabilities, and researchers have repeatedly found it to be a reliable and valid personnel screening tool.

Millington, M., & Strauser, D. (1998). Planning strategies in disability management. Work, 10(3), 261-270. This article presents valuable how to tips for employers and rehabilitation professionals seeking to implement worksite-based disability management programs. The authors illustrate needs assessment and service delivery approaches using a case study of a company which successfully controlled workers compensation costs. Dual emphasis is placed on preventing work-related injuries through organizational ergonomics and on returning injured workers to their jobs in a timely and cost- effective manner.

Millington, M., Szymanski, E., & Hanley-Maxwell, C. (1994). Effect of the label of mental retardation on employment concerns and selection. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 38(1), 27-43. This article describes a research study of employers= attitudes toward workers with mental retardation. Some employers were presented with a fictitious job applicant who was described as mentally retarded, whereas other employers were presented with the same applicant without mention of the applicant=s disability. Employers reviewing the non-disabled applicant rated his qualifications more positively than did the employers whose applicant was described as mentally retarded. These results suggest that the label mental retardation has a significant impact on employers= hiring decisions.

Moglowsky, N., & Rumrill, P.D., Jr. (1996). Schizophrenia: Guidelines for rehabilitation professionals. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation, 7(1), 21-29. The authors describe the deleterious impact that schizophrenia can have on a person=s career development. The article presents a Awork as therapy@ approach to vocational rehabilitation services for people with schizophrenia, emphasizing reasonable accommodations, communication with employers, and career planning within an overrall symptom management regimen. Group approaches such as the job club and clubhouse models are emphasized as a way of helping people with mental illnesses secure and maintain employment.

Morris, B. (1993). Meshing worker=s comp with the ADA. Risk & Insurance, August, 26, 28-30. This article examines the Americans with Disabilities Act=s employment (Title I) provisions within the context of typical state workers compensation regulations. The author notes that the two laws share the spirit of assiting people with disabilities in performing their jobs, but that their specific procedures are potentially contradictory. The issue of reasonable accommodations, especially reassignment of a worker to another position, is identified as a particularly complicated issue.

Mullins, J.A., Jr., Rumrill, P.D., Jr., & Roessler, R.T. (1994). The Americans with Disabilities Act: Use a collaborative approach to reasonable accomodations. Human Resource Focus, 94(1a), 16-17. This article provides step-by-step guidelines for business managers to follow in providing reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities as a means of complying with both the Americans with Disabilities Act and state workers compensation statutes. The authors describe a proactive, Awin-win@ communication strategy whereby employee and employer collaborate to identify accommodation needs and eliminate possible barriers to the worker=s success. Reasonable accommodation resources are also delineated.

Mullins, J., Rumrill, P., & Roessler, R. (1996). The role of the rehabilitation placement consultant in the Americans with Disabilities Act era. Work, 6(1), 3-10. This article describes potential roles and functions of rehabilitation placement consultants in providing disability management services to employers. Among the services that the authors identified as high-growth opportunities are Americans with Disabilities Act consultation, management training, disability awareness training, assessment of employees= reasonable accommodation needs, assistive technology consultation, and coordination of transitional employment services to aid injured workers in returning to their jobs.

National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research. (1991). Special issue in disability management. Rehab Brief, 13(7), 1-4, Washington: Author. This brief sets a rationale for developing worksite-based disability management programs as a means of helping employers to control the escalating costs of on-the-job injuries. It describes the settings, roles, and functions of disability case managers, predicting that disability management will become a major initiative in vocational rehabilitation in the 1990s.

O'Brien, G., & Schiro-Geist, C. (1997). Primary, secondary, and tertiary direct threat: Issues in the employment of persons with HIV/AIDS. Rehabilitation Education, 11(1-2), 101-110. This article presents an excellent overview of concerns related to the employment of people with HIV/AIDS. It explores issues of direct threat, right to privacy, and co- worker responses to a highly stigmatizing disease. Specific strategies to aid rehabilitation professionals in consulting with employers are included.

Owens, L., & Buckholz, R. (1993). Assessing reliability of performance in the functional capacity assessment. Journal of Disability, 3, 149-160. This article highlights contemporary issues related to functional capacities evaluations of injured workers. As assessment in this area continues to move toward a situational, on- the-job focus, it is important for evaluators to stay mindful of the psychometric properties (e.g., reliability and validity) of the assessment tools that they select. Guidelines are presented for considering the potential effectiveness and scientific soundness of evaluation methods.

Pape, D., & Tarvydas, V. (1993). Responsible and responsive rehabilitation consultation on the ADA: The importance of training for psychologists. Rehabilitation Psychology, 38(2), 117-131. This article sets a rationale for in-depth training in the area of the Americans with Disabilities Act on the part of rehabilitation psychologists. The authors describe training needs related to reasonable accommodations and assistive technology, performance evaluation, employment law, occupational safety, and human resource development.

Peters, P. (1990). Successful return to work following a musculoskeletal injury. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses Journal, 38, 264-269. Musculoskeletal injuries, especially those affecting the lower back, are, by far, the most common type of work-related injuries in the United States. This article presents strategies to assist workers in resuming their jobs while recovering from injuries to the musculoskeletal system. It examines the stress that lifting and other work-related duties can exact on one=s back, neck, and extremities, and the author recommends a dual strategy of workplace ergonomics and transitional (light duty) work to move workers gradually back into their customary jobs.

Riggar, T., Crimando, W., Bordieri, J., & Phillips, B. (1998). Rehabilitation administration preservice education: Preparing the professional rehabilitation administrator, manager, and supervisor. Journal of Rehabilitation Administration, 12(4), 93-102. This article discusses training needs for rehabilitation administrators including curriculum such as: administrative theory, personnel management, program planning and evaluation, marketing, fiscal/operation management, supported employment, and private sector rehabilitation. The authors contend that pre-service training in all potential areas of employment opportunities is the best way to ensure career success in a highly diversified and dynamic rehabilitation marketplace.

Roessler, R. (1988). A conceptual basis for return-to-work interventions. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 32, 98-107. This article provides a structure for the Return-to-Work program, a small-group series designed to encourage injured workers to re-start their careers. The group employs rational-emotive techniques to aid participants in examining their motivation to re-enter the work force, as indicated by factors that either facilitate or impede their prospects for re-employment. The Return-to-Work group has been utilized in several settings with people with disabilities, and it has proven effective as a career motivational intervention.

Roessler, R. (1995). The Work Experience Survey. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Research and Training Center in Vocational Rehabilitation. The Work Experience Survey is a needs assessment tool to assist employees with disabilities in identifying reasonable accommodations. The instrument has four sections -- worksite accessibility, performance of essential job functions, job mastery, and job satisfaction. By responding to a series of checklists concerning these aspects of the person's work, the employee develops an accommodation plan for removing on-the-job barriers. The Work Experience Survey has been validated in a number of studies with workers with various disabilities, and it can be used by rehabilitation professionals and employers in helping employees maintain their careers while coping with disabilities.

Roessler, R., Brown, P., & Rumrill, P. (1993). All aboard job fairs: A joint endeavor of the public and private sectors. Journal of Rehabilitation, 59(3), 24-28. This article describes the All Aboard Job Fair model as an effective strategy for employers to recruit employees with disabilities and older workers. The authors demonstrated their innovative placement approach in 8 job fairs in Arkansas and Kansas. Participating employers and applicants alike rated the job fairs as a positive experience, and numerous job placements resulted from the program. Strategies for rehabilitation professionals and employers to follow in developing job fairs as a placement experience for people with disabilities are also provided.

Roessler, R., & Gottcent, J. (1994). The Work Experience Survey: A reasonable accommodation/career development strategy. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 25(3), 16-21. This article presents case studies of five employed people with multiple sclerosis. Respondents completed a structured needs assessment tool to identify their career maintenance concerns in four areas: worksite accessibility, performance of essential job functions, job mastery, and job satisfaction. The most prominent concerns reported by respondents involved how to best communicate their illness-related needs (e.g., reasonable accommodations, medical leave) to their employers.

Roessler, R., Reed, C., & Brown, P. (1998). Coping with chronic illness at work: Case studies of five successful employees. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), 261-269. This article presents case studies demonstrating how five workers with chronic illnesses were able to maintain their careers via reasonable accommodations. Special emphasis is placed on collaboration with employers to address disability-related barriers and on utilizing community rehabilitation resources. Implications regarding the continued advancement of assistive technology and the changing demographic of the American work force are examined.

Roessler, R., & Rubin, S. (1998). Case management and rehabilitation counseling: Procedures and techniques. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. This book offers conceptual and practical suggestions for rehabilitation counselors engaged in case management services for people with disabilities. It includes strategies for collaborating with employers to assist employees with disabilities in all aspects of the rehabilitation process, from medical services to transitional employment programs which continue the worker=s employment while he or she is recovering from work-related injury.

Roessler, R.T., & Rumrill, P.D., Jr. (1995). Promoting reasonable accomodations: An essential postemployment service. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 26(4), 3-7. This article emphasizes the need for more focused attention on the postemployment needs of workers with disabilities. The authors suggest that reasonable accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Act constitute the key to long-term career success for people with disabilities. A AThree I@ model whereby employees with disabilities identify their needs for on-the-job accommodations, initiate requests with employers for a reveiw of their needs, and implement accommodations with employer assistance is advanced as a framework for delivering self-advocacy and postemployment services.

Roessler, R., & Rumrill, P. (1998). Reducing worksite barriers to enhance job satisfaction: An important postemployment service for employees with chronic illnesses. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), 219-229. This article describes a research study of the factors related to job satisfaction and job mastery for workers with chronic illnesses. The authors reported that the number of perceived barriers in the areas of worksite accessibility and performance of essential job functions was related to participants= optimism regarding their future career success. The authors conclude by calling for increased attention to post-employment services and reasonable accommodations on the part of employers and rehabilitation professionals.

Roessler, R.T., Rumrill, P.D., Jr., Battersby, J.C., & Garnette, M.R. (1996). Employee=s guide to reasonable accomodations. Hot Springs, AR: Arkansas Research and Training Center in Vocational Rehabilitation. This implementation manual for the Work Experience Survey describes existing research with the instrument, psychometric properties, and administrative procedures. The authors include descriptions of a wide variety of applications for this postemployment needs assessment tool.

Rosenthal, D. (1997). Disability management: Implications for rehabilitation counselor education. Journal of Job Placement and Development, 13(1), 10-13. This article provides a thorough framework for incorporating disability management training into pre-service rehabilitation counselor training. It details the philosophical underpinnings of disability management, submits a rationale for increased attention to disability management in graduate curricula, and provides specific class activities for instructors to use in delivering course content in worksite rehabilitation. A comprehensive reference list of disability management resources is also provided.

Rosenthal, D., & Olsheski, J. (1999). Disability management and rehabilitation counseling: Present status and future opportunities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 65(1), 31-38. This article examines the history, current status, and possible future trends in disability management as a rehabilitation counseling intervention. The authors= primary point is that Certified Rehabilitation Counselors are best qualified to provide case management and return-to-work services for injured workers. The roles, functions, and responsibilities of disability case managers in worksite rehabilitation settings are also presented.

Rumrill, P. (1996) Employment issues and multiple sclerosis. New York: Demos. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the employment issues that confront people with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common neurological disorders in the world, affecting as many as 500,000 people in the United States alone. The book was written to assist people with multiple sclerosis, their employers, rehabilitation professionals, and health care providers in maintaining the worker=s productivity while he or she copes with an unpredictable, chronic illness. Chapters include descriptions of the medical aspects of multiple sclerosis, factors associated with job retention and loss, job placement and retention interventions, the Americans with Disabilities Act, vocational assessment strategies, and tax options and work incentives for people with disabilities.

Rumrill, P., & Garnette, M. (1997). Career adjustment via reasonable accommodations: The effects of an employee-empowerment intervention for people with disabilities. Work, 9(1), 57-64. This article presents a research study involving self-advocacy training for employed people with disabilities. In a two-session counseling intervention, the authors sought to increase participants= knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act, confidence in requesting accommodations from employers, and activity related to requesting and implementing needed accommodations at the workplace. Results indicated that the training had a significant impact on participants= willingness to approach their employers for disability-related assistance.

Rumrill, P.D., Jr., & Koch, L.C. (1997). Job placement revisited: Employers as interdependent members of a working alliance. Journal of Job Placement, 13(1), 26-29. This article discusses the need for employers and job placement specialists to work together in providing services for people with disabilities, shows how this collaboration benefits both employer and employee, and how this collaboration is a main element in successful job placement and employment.

Rumrill, P.D., Jr., & Koch, L.C. (1998). The career maintenance specialist: Broadening the scope of successful rehabilitation. Journal of Rehabilitation Administration, 22(2), 111-122. Citing the disappointing post-rehabilitation employment outcomes reported by people with disabilities in a number of studies, the authors call upon the state-federal Vocational Rehabilitation program to adopt more encompassing career maintenance services. Delivered by a trained rehabilitation counselor, these career maintenance services include work adjustment counseling, self-advocacy training, technology and reasonable accommodation consultation, case management in supported employment, and worksite- based disability management interventions.

Rumrill, P., Millington, M., Webb, J., & Cook, B. (1998). Employment expectations as a differential indicator of attitudes toward people with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), 271-280. This article describes a research study of rehabilitation counselors= attitudes toward workers with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Results indicated that the label Adiabetes mellitus@ has a negative impact on counselors= ratings of job applicants. Recommendations for helping employers and rehabilitation professionals remove the stigma associated with diabetes are included.

Rumrill, P., Nutter, D., Hennessey, M., & Ware, M. (1998). Job retention and breast cancer: Employee perspectives and implications for rehabilitation planning. Work, 10(3), 251-259. This article offers an in-depth look at the health maintenance and career development concerns of four women who survived breast cancer. The authors detail the medical, psychological, and vocational histories of each respondent, as well as the services that each worker currently uses in coping with cancer while continuing a career. Implications for assessment and planning in rehabilitation are discussed, along with recommended strategies for employers in accommodating women with disabilities.

Rumrill, P., Roessler, R., Battersby-Longden, J., & Schuyler, B. (1998). Situational assessment of the accommodation needs of employees who are visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 92(1), 42-54. This article describes a research study of the accommodation and disability management needs of employed people with visual impairments. Special emphasis is placed on technological solutions to disability-related barriers -- and on the need for employees with visual impairments to effectively communicate their needs to employers. Of particular concern to respondents in this study were transportation issues, socialization with co-workers, and opportunities for re-training and/or career advancement.

Rumrill, P., Roessler, R., & Cook, B. (1998). Improving career re-entry outcomes for people with multiple sclerosis: A comparison of two approaches. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), 241-252. This article presents an innovative approach to assisting unemployed people with serious chronic illnesses in re-establishing their careers. The featured intervention is the Accommodations Planning Team Seminar, a half-day, large-group program which brings together rehabilitation professionals, employers, and job seekers with disabilities. Structured activities include assessment of the job seeker's accommodation needs, assessment of the general accessibility of the employer=s worksite, Awin-win@ communication strategies for employers and employees to use in removing disability- related barriers, and introductions to technology resources.

Rumrill, P., & Scheff, C. (1996). Enhance productivity and reduce turnover with worksite safety and disability management. Journal of Long-Term Care Administration, 24(3), 32-35. This article presents specific disability management strategies for employers in the long-term health care field. The authors make the point that direct-care nursing is one of the most hazardous occupations in the United States in terms of the incidence of work-related injuries. Ergonomic solutions in the areas of patient lifting and safe footing are described, along with transitional employment strategies to assist injured workers in a speedy return to work.

Rumrill, P., Schoenfeld, N., Holman, C., & Mullins, J. (1997). Ecological assessment of the career maintenance needs of employees with diabetes mellitus. Work, 9(2), 111-120. This article presents case studies of four employees with diabetes mellitus. The authors track employer responses to the unpredictable, often progressive disease, couched within a career maintenance context. The most notable accommodations reported by respondents are flexible schedules to allow for self-care regimens, contingency planning for sick days, and stress management techniques to combat fatigue.

Schall, C. (1998). The Americans with Disabilities Act: Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), 191-203. This article tracks discrimination complaints under the Americans with Disabilities Act received by the U.S. Equal employment Opportunity Commission during 1992-1996. Results indicate that the majority of Title I (Employment) complaints (51%) alleged unlawful discharge, and that some 23 percent alleged failure to provide reasonable accommodations. Fewer complaints were received in the areas of harassment, layoff, promotion, hiring, and discipline. The author also reported summary data concerning the disposition of discrimination complaints; most complaints filed by people with disabilities were found groundless. Implications of these findings to current labor market trends are also included.

Shrey, D., & LaCerte, M. (1997). Principle and practices of disability management in industry. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. This book provides a complete overview of disability management programming in the United States and abroad. With contributions from international authorities, the editors span philosophical and practical aspects of worksite rehabilitation and organizational ergonomics. Chapters include an overview of disability management, transitional work programs, the role of the physical therapist in disability management, occupational health nurses in disability management, ergonomics and disability prevention, the role of the physician in disability management, evaluation of work disability, joint labor-management teams, cumulative trauma disorders, functional capacity evaluation, training procedures, the role of rehabilitation counselors in disability management, occupational stress, familial issues, legal issues, claims management, Canadian perspectives, the Americans with Disabilities Act and workers compensation, issues related to an aging workforce, managed care, and international perspectives on work disability and disability management.

Shrey, D., & Mitchell, D.K. (1986). Disability management among private and public employers: Models and strategies for rehabilitation intervention. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 17(3), 13-19. Discusses what disability management is and the costs associated with injury and disability among private and public sector employers. Looks at the issues between rehabilitation professionals, employers, insurance carriers, medical professionals and attorneys. Examines three disability management programs given by the Industrial Center for Industry, Labor and Rehabilitation.