Article Details

Research Database: Article Details

Citation:  Gamble, D., & Moore, C.L., (2003). The relation between VR services and employment outcomes of individuals with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation, 69 (3), 31-38.
Title:  The relation between VR services and employment outcomes of individuals with traumatic brain injury
Authors:  Gamble, D., & Moore, C.L.,
Year:  2003
Journal/Publication:  Journal of Rehabilitation
Publisher:  National Rehabilitation Association
Full text:  http://proxy.library.vcu.edu/login?url=http://www.questia.com/libra...   
Peer-reviewed?  Yes
NIDILRR-funded?  Not reported
Research design:  Database mining

Structured abstract:

Background:  Individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have poor vocational outcomes. Post injury employment rates have ranged between 22% to 55%. Many studies have looked at predictors for employment outcomes for this group. Other studies have looked at neuropsychological functioning, severity of injury, demographic characteristics, length of time from injury and return to work, assistive technology and rehabilitation outcomes. However, there are no studies about vocational rehabilitation services impact on employment outcomes for individuals with TBI.
Purpose:  The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the provision of six rehabilitation services and vocational outcomes for individuals with TBI. The research questions included: How many participants received assessment, college, counseling and guidance, job placement, restoration and work adjustment services? Are assessment, college, counseling and guidance, job placement, restoration and work adjustment services significantly related to closure status? Are there significant differences in weekly earnings based on the provision of assessment, college, counseling and guidance, job placement, restoration and work adjustment services?
Setting:  This study included individuals with TBI served by multiple vocational rehabilitation agencies in various settings.
Study sample:  The study sample included 1,073 individuals with TBI who received state vocational rehabiliation services from a southeastern state and whose cases were closed in either competitive employment or non-rehabiliated from 1992 to 2000. Forty nine percent of the participatns were competitively employed when there case was closed by state vocational rehabilitation (VR) and 51% were not. The majority (89%) reportedly had a severe disability. Most were single (79%), Caucasian (78%), and male (70%). The ages ranged from 16 to 71 years.The majority had 11 years of education or better. At the times of services 91% reported no prior work experience.
Intervention:  The interventions included six vocational rehabilitation services. This included: assessment, college, counseling and guidance, job placement, restoration, and work adjustment services.
Control or comparison condition:  There was not control or comparison condition.
Data collection and analysis:  Data was collected from the Rehabilitation Services Administration's 911 database. This provides information on each persons' demographic characteristics, services provided by VR and outcomes. Earnings and VR closure status were used to measure employment. The closure status was divided into two categories: competitively employed and not working. Descriptive, chi-square, logistic regression, and analysis of variance procedures were used to analyze the data. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was employed in the calculations. Only those who were closed in competitive employment were selected to evaluate differences in weekly earnings. A significance level was set at .05.
Findings:  Counsleing/guidance was the most frequently provided services (89%). VR services identified as positive predictors of closure status were: college, counseling/guidance, and job placement services. The odds of obtaining competitive employment after receiving college services was 5.21 times the odd for those not receiving services. The odds of obtaining competitive employment for those receiving counseling/guidance services was 3.03 times greater than those who did not receive the services and the odds of competitive employment among those who received job placement services was 20.77 times greater than those who did not. Notably, work adjustment was a significant negative predictor of closure status. Individuals who did not receive assessment or college services had higher earnings than those who receive college services alone. When job placement services were not provided the effect of college training on mean weekly earnings was different at each level of assessment.
Conclusions:  College, counseling/guidane and job placement services were significantly and positively related to closure status. Work adjustment services were inversely related to weekly earnings for competitively employed individuals and assessment, college, and job placements services interacted significantly on weekly earnings of those competitively employed. Job placement is the most important positive predictor of closure. Rehabilitation counselor education and training should focus on job placement services. College training benefited an small number of individuals in the sample. Additional research is needed to investigate the relationship between VR services and employment outcomes for individuals with TBI.

Disabilities served:  Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Populations served:  Gender: Female and Male
Race: Asian
Race: Black / African American
Race: White / Caucasian
Ethnicity: Hispanic or Latino
Interventions:  Job search and placement assistance
Rehabilitation counseling
Vocational assessment
Vocational rehabilitation
Other
Outcomes:  Employment acquisition
Return to work