Article Details

Research Database: Article Details

Citation:  Andelic,N., Stevens,L.F.,Sigurdardottir, S., Arango-Lasprilla, J.C., &Roe, C. (2012). Associations between disability and employment 1 year after traumatic brain injury in a working age population. Brain Injury, 26 (3), 261-269.
Title:  Associations between disability and employment 1 year after traumatic brain injury in a working age population
Authors:  Andelic,N., Stevens,L.F.,Sigurdardottir, S., Arango-Lasprilla, J.C., &Roe, C.
Year:  2012
Journal/Publication:  Brain Injury
Publisher: 
DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/1539449214561765
Full text: 
Peer-reviewed?  Yes
NIDILRR-funded?  Not reported

Structured abstract:

Background:  Individuals who sustain traumatic brain injury face high rates of unemployment. Research has focused on factors associated with employment. However, the research does not address how they the factors interrelate.
Purpose:  The aim of this research was to determine personal factors and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) components (i.e. impairments, activity limitation and participation restrictions) are associated with employment outcomes at one year post TBI.
Setting:  The setting for the study was a university hospital in Norway.
Study sample:  Participants were 93 people with TBI at one year post injury. At that time, 44 were unemployed and 49 were employed. Among the unemployed, 77% were male and 23, female. Within the other employed group, 75% were male and 33% were female. Over half the cause for injury for each group was traffic accident (61% unemployed; 59% employed). Half or a little more also had substance use at the time of injury (50% unemployed and 53%).The majority of those unemployed had a CT scan Marshall classification of 3 or more (64%) and among the employed less than 3 (65%). Number of impaired body functions averaged 7.4 for the unemployed group and 3.7 for the employed.
Intervention:  There was no intervention.
Control or comparison condition:  The prospective cohort study was part of a larger TBI research project. This study compared outcomes between an employed and unemployed group of individuals with TBI at one year post injury.
Data collection and analysis:  Individuals demographic variable, injury related characteristics, and length of hospital stay were collected during acute TBI admissions. At one year follow up Functional Independence Measure and Community Integration Questionnaire were used to gather information. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Version 16. Univariate analyses, descriptive analyses, t-tests and Mann Whitney U tests and chi squares were conducted. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used too determine the association of personal factors and disability on employment outcomes one year post injury.
Findings:  Individuals who were employed at one year post injury were more likely to have been working at the time of injury and have fewer acute and in-hospital rehabilitation admissions. Significant differences were found between the employed and unemployed groups in three ICF components. Personal factors, impairments, and activity limitations contributed to outcomes. The probabilities of being employed one year post injury were 95% lower for those who were unemployed at the time of injury, 74% lower for those with more severe brain damage, and 82% lower for those with more cognitive limitations at one year post injury.. The accuracy of the model to predict employment outcomes at one year post injury was 86%.
Conclusions:  The ICF model can assist rehabilitation professionals with planning and developing vocational rehabilitation interventions for people with TBI. Some factors can not be changed post injury, thus, intervention should focus on modifiable factors related to employment outcomes like cognitive ability.

Disabilities served:  Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Populations served:  Gender: Female and Male
Outcomes:  Other