Article Details

Research Database: Article Details

Citation:  Leff, S., Cook, J., Gold, P.l., Toprac, M., Blyler, D., Goldberg, R., McFarlane, W., Shafer, M., Allen, E., Allen, E., Camacho-Gonsalves, T., & Rabb, B. (2005). Effects of job development and job support on competitive employment of persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 56 (10), 1237-1244.
Title:  Effects of job development and job support on competitive employment of persons with severe mental illness
Authors:  Leff, S., Cook, J., Gold, P.l., Toprac, M., Blyler, D., Goldberg, R., McFarlane, W., Shafer, M., Allen, E., Allen, E., Camacho-Gonsalves, T., & Rabb, B.
Year:  2005
Journal/Publication:  Psychiatric Services
Publisher:  American Psychiatric Association
DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.56.10.1237
Full text:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16215189   
Peer-reviewed?  Yes
NIDILRR-funded?  No
Research design:  Systematic review / meta-analysis

Structured abstract:

Background:  Few studies have tried to determine which specific supported employment services improve employment outcomes for people with psychiatric disabilities. This study examined the effects of job development and job support among other services on acquisitions and retention of competitive employment for individuals with a psychiatric disability. It found that job development is a very effective service when the goal is job acquisition. Job support is associated with retention in first competitive job, but its casual role is questionable.
Purpose:  The study hypothesized that participants who received job development would be more likely to acquire competitive employment than those who did not receive it, and would likely be more prepared for work and more likely to acquire competitive jobs than those who received it later. It was further hypothesized that those who received job support would work more months and hours that those who did not.
Setting:  This study is a systematic review. The included studies were undertaken in various locations and settings.Data used in the analysis came from the two year EIDP (Employment Demonstration Intervention Project)that collected data from sites in seven different states.
Study sample:  A total of 1,340 persons from the seven state employment demonstration sites were included in the analysis. Persons doing paid work at baseline (N=28) and those with no follow-up employment data (N=98) were excluded. Individuals included in the study if they were 18 years old or older at enrollment, were willing and able to provide informed consent, had a DSM diagnosis of mental illness, and were unemployed.
Intervention:  Job development was defined as direct of indirect contact with potential employers or networking with individuals or organizations that had job information. Job support was defined as on-site counseling, support, and problem solving.
Control or comparison condition:  Comparison services included for example a variety of employment services such as vocational assessment and evaluation and off site job skills training, vocational treatment planning or career development, and vocational support groups.
Data collection and analysis:  Interview assessments with EIDP participants elicited information about demographic characteristics, previous employment, current income, clinical indicators, and other relevant information at six month intervals for 24 months. Sites also collected data on the types of vocational and clinical services received by EIDP participants. Recruitment of study participants took place between February 1996 and May 2000. Random effects meta analysis were fist to the data over multiple sites. All analyses showed consistency between sites. Effect sizes for the job acquisition and job retention variables were calculated using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis statistical software. A;; hypothesis were two-tailed, and the standard p value of p<.05 was used for rejection of the null hypothesis.
Findings:  Job development helped participants obtain competitive employment. Individuals who received job development sere almost five times more likely to obtain competitive employment than individuals who not received job development. Individuals with no previous work experience had virtually no chance of acquiring competitive employment without job development. A significant association between months in the first competitive job and receipt of job support was found.
Conclusions:  Data from this study support the importance of job development and job supports to successful job acquisition and job retention. On average, receipt of job support was positively correlated with the number of months and hours worked in the first competitive job.

Disabilities served:  Anxiety disorder
Depression
Schizophrenia
Interventions:  Job coach
Job search and placement assistance
Supported employment
Outcomes:  Employment acquisition
Increase in tenure