Article Details

Research Database: Article Details

Citation:  Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Wright, J., Shem, K., Medel, R., & Duong, T. (2012). An effective community-based mentoring program for return to work and school after brain and spinal cord injury. NeuroRehabilitation, 31 (1), 63-73.
Title:  An effective community-based mentoring program for return to work and school after brain and spinal cord injury
Authors:  Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Wright, J., Shem, K., Medel, R., & Duong, T.
Year:  2012
Journal/Publication:  NeuroRehabilitation
Publisher:  IOS Press
Full text:   
Peer-reviewed?  Yes
NIDILRR-funded?  Yes
Research design:  Cross-sectional

Structured abstract:

Background:  Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), and other neurological disorders often have severe disabilities impacting their ability to return to previous activities and return to work is limited. There is an ongoing need for education and vocational rehabilitation systems to work together to improve outcomes for youth and young adults with disabilities.
Purpose:  The purpose of this article was to present information on a community-based mentoring program for young adults, ages 16 - 26 years with a recently acquired TBI, SCI, and other neurological disorders. The two objectives of this study were to 1) to demonstrate continuing increased in standardized measures of community integration from the time of enrollment in the program to the time of exit, and 2) improve the percentage of youth and adults who successfully access post-secondary education or employment opportunities.
Setting:  The setting was various community sites in California.
Study sample:  The study sample included 131 individuals with TBI, SCI, or other neurologic disabilities recruited between 2005 and 2010. The majority were individuals with TBI (61.1%) or SCI 929.8%) with one individuals dually diagnosed with TBI and SCI(0.8%)and 8.4% with other disabilities to include other neurological disabilities. The majority were male (67.9%). The mean age was 20.3 years. Participants were primarily Hispanic (42%) or Caucasian (36.3%) with the remaining Asians (10.7%) or African American (4.6%). In addition, there were 121 trained "mentors" who were a minimum of two years post injury and had "a high level of acceptance and successful integration into the community". This included working or post-secondary education. Most were working (57%) while 30% were attending school, and 13% were retired.
Intervention:  A mentoring program was developed called the "Back on Track to Success Mentoring Program." The goal of the program was to improve the ability of youth/young adults with disabilities to navigate through the services and programs available to individuals with disabilities. In addition, the goal was to increase the rate of return to work and post-secondary education. Each of the program participants were matched with a "mentor" who had training on a specific curriculum and refresher sessions throughout the entire program. Mentor/mentee relationships were required to have a minimum of three contacts per month in-person, telephone, or electronic mail methods.
Data collection and analysis:  Assessment was conducted a minimum number of four times: at enrollment, three months after entry, and every three months thereafter until attempted entry to post-secondary education or employment. In addition, each mentor and mentee completed a questionnaire which documented satisfaction with the relationship. Finally, the program used standardized assessments to include the Disability Rating Scale to include Employability and Level of Functioning, the Participation Index of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory, version 4, the Supervision Rating Scale, the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique Short Form, and the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale. A successful transition was defined as the individual remained in the post-secondary education or employment environment. Data were collected by mentors and project staff. Formal assessments were collected by trained research assistants. Mentors submitted meeting logs documenting when, where, and topics discussed. Data were stored in an Access database and descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted using SPSS. Pre and post test program scores on standardized outcome measures were compared by paired T-tests.
Findings:  A total of 89 mentees were successfully matched with community-based mentors and participated in the program through to completion. Of this number 77 completed the entire program. Of this number 42 (54.5%) were considered program successes and 35 (45.5%) were considered program failures. Of the 42, 69% returned to school and 13 became employed (31%). For program successes, significant CHART subscale increases were seen for Cognitive Independence and Mobiilty. For program "failures" no statistically significant changes were seen in CHART subscale scores. For program successes, there were also significant improvements seen in the M2PI, the DRS, and SRS. For failures there were improvements seen in DRS but these were not statistically significant.
Conclusions:  Overall, findings suggest that mentoring can be beneficial toward achieving the goals of post-secondary education, employment and community independence for individuals with disabilities; specifically those with traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury and other neurological disorders.

Disabilities served:  Spinal cord injury (SCI)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Populations served:  Gender: Female and Male
Race: Asian
Race: Black / African American
Race: White / Caucasian
Ethnicity: Hispanic or Latino
Transition-age youth (14 - 24)
Interventions:  Peer mentor
Outcomes:  Employment acquisition